Task 3 Development of Integrated Urban Land Use and Transport Strategy

Task 3-1 Development of Vision(s) and Goals

It is essential that transport interventions form a coherent package with a consistent vision and goals for the desirable direction of city urban transport. Vision(s) and goals should be developed that clarify how transport measures will comprehensively benefit urban transport and these should be presented clearly in the CMP.

(1) Vision Statement

As a long-term strategy document, a CMP should include a clear statement of visions and goals, based on a review and diagnosis of the urban transport environment. The visions and goals define the desired long-term urban transport system. While visions are statements of the desirable direction of urban transport development, goals are quantitative/qualitative targets for major indices, to be achieved within the planning horizons. Such indices include average travel speeds and average volume/capacity (V/C) ratios. The emphasis should be on the improvement of specific measures for NMVs and pedestrians. Visions and goals should be consistent with the NUTP, as CMPs follow the concepts of the NUTP.

Box 1 Example of CMP Vision and Goals Statement

Example Vision Statement:

  1. To improve connectivity and travel throughout the city and its region.
  2. To improve mobility within neighbourhoods, wards, zones and satellite towns to address inner- and inter-city transportation needs.
  3. To achieve efficient arrangement of land use and transport systems to minimize overall travel cost.
  4. To offer viable and reliable transportation options that aim at reducing dependence on cars, with widespread use of non-motorized modes and mass rapid transit systems.

Example Goals Statement:

  1. Sixty percent of trips are made by public transport, with one (or two) modal changes.
  2. Ninety percent of the population is served by public transport. Trip origins and destinations will be within 500 m of public transport terminals and stops. For those who do not have access to public transport within walking distance, safe bicycle lanes should be provided to reach the public transport system, with secure bicycle parking provided.
  3. Safe and convenient pedestrian/NMV facilities are provided throughout the urban area. These facilities exist particularly in residential, educational and commercial areas.
  4. Motor vehicle restricted streets are provided in commercial and market areas.
  5. Integrated urban land use and transport systems result in efficient and sustainable mobility for everyone, and provide greater accessibility to opportunities (e.g., employment, education, health, goods, and other services).

(2) Context and Strategies

The aim of a CMP is to address the issues identified in Task 2-5, while creating a sustainable and efficient environment. Projects may not only be technically and economically feasible, but they also should be packaged in a way that supports a realistic way forward for the city. The rationale for a proposed strategy should be fully described by the evaluation of alternative concepts.

As each city has different characteristics, visions and goals specific to each city’s environment may have to be developed. Key documents identified from the review process in Task 2, including the City Development Plan (CDP), can be used to formulate a framework built on the visions and goals set out in these documents. The framework could focus on the following strategies, which aim to ensure integrated or linked solutions rather than piecemeal measures; consider the movement of people rather than vehicles; and begin a process of replication of successful solutions throughout the network:

Strategy 1: Transit-Oriented Development (TOD);

Strategy 2: Adaptive Transit;

Strategy 1: Transit-Oriented Development (TOD): Transit-Oriented Development arises from investment in infrastructure that guides the urban growth of the city. Typically, TOD involves implementing or strengthening a mass transit system with development focused on major transport nodes. This strategy supports the objective of achieving a desirable modal split of 50-70% as advised by MoUD. Mass transit can be strengthened by:

  • Enhancing the public transport network by careful and robust selection of an optimum mass transit system, including bus service improvements, bus rapid transit (BRT), and/or rail-based solutions; and
  • Developing an integrated public transport system that combines modes and services through interchanges and feeder services, rationalises existing services, and improves passenger dispersal at terminals

Cities with strong central business districts (CBDs) are generally good candidates for transit-oriented development. Trips can take place along radial axes between the CBD and suburban communities, with concentrated mixed use development around the suburban nodes.

TOD can be facilitated by identifying major corridors and investing in them as primary mass transit corridors. This can be undertaken with reference to analysis of travel demand and desire line patterns from the modelling exercise.

Strategy 2: Adaptive Transit: Adaptive transit refers to the development of transport systems that can be adapted to the existing city structure, typically for cities with low density and spread out development patterns. Decentralization of workplaces and commercial premises within cities causes high levels of cross-town and lateral trip movements, often on infrastructure that was not originally designed for such demand. In such situations paratransit, such as minivans, motorcycles, and rickshaws, is often popular as it offers the advantage of door-to-door convenience.

Adaptive transit typically involves:

  • Implementing a public transport system that adequately caters to the multiple desire lines of the population; and
  • Creating a Functional Road Hierarchy (FRH), defining roads according to their function, rather than by their design standards or physical characteristics, using traffic management methods

Many cities have road networks that do not present a reasonable FRH, with most roads performing mixed functions for through traffic, local traffic and roadside activities, such as hawkers. A FRH provides a framework for developing a road network that can serve the needs of pedestrians, passengers, cyclists and drivers. Without it, a road network tends to favour motor vehicles at the expense of other users. With a FRH, the city can better meet the needs of all transport users and address growing traffic and urban development demand.

Paratransit can be an effective alternative to private vehicles; it is a popular mode and does not require public subsidy. However, paratransit is only effective up to a threshold demand level. The strategy of adaptive transit is not without merit if appropriate land use planning is implemented, i.e., planning that does not promote travel. For example, while it may not be possible to change land use in the short-medium term, it is possible to adapt transit.

As cities do not always develop a structure that is conducive to one particular strategy, in some cases it is preferable to seek a combination of transit-oriented development and adaptive transit. Whichever strategy is selected, it is important to consider an optimal mix of modes. Trip length is an important factor in the selection of appropriate measures. Table 12 shows desired transport modes for different trip lengths.

Table 12 Desired Transport Modes by Trip Length

Trip length (km) 0-2 2-5 5-10 10-15 >15
Share of trips 25–50 20–25 15–20 10–15 >15
Desired travel modes Walk, cycle,2-wheelers, rickshaw Cycle, 2-wheelers, cars, rickshaws Cycle, 2-wheelers, cars, 3-wheelers, bus, taxi Car, bus, taxi, metro/rail Car, express bus, metro/rail, taxi

Source: Geetam Tiwari, Urban Passenger Transport: Framework for an Optimal Modal Mix, INRM Policy Brief No.1, Asian Development Bank, 2006.

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