The overall methodology for a transport demand model comprises two major steps: 1) Developing a Base Year Transport Demand Model, and 2) Developing a Future Transport Demand Model. The following sections show the details of each step.

Figure 1 Work Flow to Develop Transport Demand Model

As the initial step in the demand modeling, a base-year model may be developed. The methodology for model calibration is given in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Base-Year Transport Demand Model Calibration

Preparation of Base-Year Origin-Destination (O-D) Matrices: The trip generation/ attraction, distribution and modal split can be estimated simultaneously in the base-year model. Person-trip O-D matrices by vehicle type are directly estimated from the O-D survey mentioned above, with the number of person-trip generations and attractions in each zone divided by the sample rate in each zone.

The number of zones is typically around 20 to 40 for the simplified model and a single zone is expected to have around 50,000 – 100,000 population. To estimate modal spilt, the major modes must be classified, but the workload of this step will increase significantly as the number of modes increases. For Indian cities, it is recommended that the trips by the following modes be estimated separately (other modes such as motorcycle or taxi can be included depending on the situation in each city):

- passenger vehicle;
- auto and cycle rickshaws;
- bus;
- truck; and
- bicycle.

The main data required and outputs are as follows:

- Required Input Data
- The number of trips between each zonal pair by vehicle mode, from the results of O-D surveys
- Sample rate in each zone
- Output
- Person-trip O-D matrices by vehicle mode (i.e., private vehicle including passenger car, motorcycle, and bicycle, and public transport)

Preparation of Base-Year Transport Network Data: The transport network data should include the road and public transport networks. For the simplified model, the network should include only trunk routes, such as national and state highways, and roads with high traffic capacity or volume. The network data should consist of a number of link data, including the following:

- coordination;
- traffic capacity;
- free flow speed; and
- road regulations (e.g., one-way, heavy truck ban)

Traffic Assignment: With O-D matrices and road network data, traffic volumes in each road section will be estimated. Two types of O-D matrix will be used: person-trip O-D and vehicle-trip O-D matrices in passenger car units (PCUs), obtained from person-trip O-D matrices divided by both average number of passengers in each vehicle type and the PCU factor for each vehicle type. While assignment of person-trip O-D will show the person travel pattern and major corridor demand in person-trip units, assignment of vehicle-trip O-Ds will show the Volume-Capacity Ratio (V/C ratio) in each road link, indicating the level of congestion and identifying road network bottlenecks. Road network data can be obtained from the road network inventory described above. Required input data and outputs follow:

- Required Input Data
- Person-trip O-D matrices by vehicle mode
- Average number of passengers in each vehicle type
- PCU factor for each vehicle type
- Road network data
- Output
- Traffic volume on each road section
- Vehicle/Capacity ratio on each road section
- Average travel time on each road section

Calibration of the Model: Calibration of the traffic model is essential to ensure accuracy and reliability. The results of the assignment step in the base year should be compared with actual observed traffic count data, such as screen line and cordon line data. The parameters should be adjusted to provide a better match. These parameters will be used for the model in the target year.

Page topDevelopment of a transport demand model is an important task in the CMP. The base-year model will be developed based on the surveys conducted above and it should be calibrated using the existing traffic flow. The model for the target year will then be developed, with the future transport network and land use scenarios. After the development of the model, alternative scenarios and projects will be evaluated with the transport demand model.

A flowchart for developing the model is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Work Flow to Develop Transport Demand Model

The transport demand model includes the following four sub-components:

(i) Trip generation/attraction: This step estimates the volume of person-trips generated/ attracted to/from each zone.

(ii) Trip distribution: The trip distribution step calculates the number of person-trips travelling between zones and develops an O-D matrix.

(iii) Modal split: The modal split step estimates the number of trips by each mode and provides vehicle O-D matrices for each mode.

(iv) Assignment: The assignment step distributes O-D trips onto the road network and estimates the traffic volume on each road.

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