Table 1 Comparison of External Environment of Public Transport Systems in Foreign and Indian Cases

Parameter Cases in Developed Countries Indian Cases
Legal Framework The city governments are strong units of administration. City public transport is by and large their responsibility. e.g., the reputed Curitiba (Brazil) model was conceived and implemented by the city Mayor The city governments traditionally have not enjoyed as much autonomy as their western counterparts. City transport generally does not fall within the purview of the city governments (Maharashtra and Gujarat being exceptions). This has led to diffused responsibility and multiplicity of agencies
Effectiveness of enforcement measures The regime is generally that of compliance with rules and laws The enforcement of laws and rules is generally not strict
Institutional Framework- Competition Generally buses are operated by private concessionaires Generally buses are operated by government managed companies
Financial support Generally the provincial government or the national government covers the viability gap The situation varies from state to state. In some cases the state government provides financial support and in some cases it does not
Taxation scenario Public transport is taxed at a reasonable rate There are multiple taxes on public transport
Socio-economic conditions High per capita incomes allows fares to be substantially higher Low per capita income imposes an upper ceiling on fares
City development Land use within the city is well defined Land use within the city is mixed and heterogeneous
Diversity of traffic conditions Traffic is by and large homogeneous Traffic is very diverse
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