Parking Policy

Parking Policy Objectives

An appropriate parking policy can address a number of objectives thereby benefiting the transport network of a city in a number of ways. Such objectives are:

  • To discourage the use of private vehicles thereby encouraging public transport
  • To remove obstacles from carriageways thereby improving the steady flow of traffic and increasing carriageway capacity
  • To contribute to a city’s economic activities by ensuring a ‘turnover’ of different vehicles rather than long stay vehicles in commercial areas
  • To satisfy social objectives of supplying adequate parking space at certain locations for certain social groups e.g. residents, mobility disadvantaged.

National Parking Policy

In addition to the above general objectives, parking measures proposed by an Indian city should conform to existing policy at national, state and city level. The National Urban Transport Policy for India (published by Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, April 2006) refers to parking in paragraphs 34 and 35. A summary is shown in Box 1.

Box 1 Parking Policy (NUTP)

  • Levy of a high parking fee that truly represents the value of the land occupied should be used to make public transport comparatively more attractive
  • Provide park and ride facilities for bicycle users with convenient interchange
  • Graded scale parking fees should aim to recover the economic cost of land used for parking and electronic metering should be used widely
  • State governments should amend building by-laws in all million plus cities so that adequate parking space is available for users of such buildings
  • By-laws should also control carriage way parking in residential areas
  • Multi-level parking complexes should be a mandatory requirement in city centres that have high rise commercial complexes and will be given priority under the NURM

Source: National Urban Transport Policy for India, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, April 2006.

City Parking Policy

Each city should develop a Comprehensive Mobility Plan or Transport Master Plan that includes an outline of a strategy for parking controls within the city and that conforms to the above national policy. The following list provides a summary of components of a parking strategy that are typically utilized by cities worldwide. The design of parking measures should conform to the adopted strategy of the city.

  • Utilize parking controls to regulate car usage
  • Minimize the impact of on-street parking and encourage off-street parking (particularly for long-term parkers, such as commuters)
  • Optimize existing parking capacity, before creating new parking facilities
  • Prioritize parking in the following order: physically disadvantaged, residents, short-term visitors or commercial activities, long-term parkers such as work commuters
  • Improve safety for pedestrians by reducing illegal parking and opening additional public space for pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Introduce paid parking as a method to dissuade car use and/or raise revenue
  • Utilize fees and fines from parking to invest in the building of car parks and to improve public transport
  • Develop public-private partnerships (PPP) for the operation of either on-street or (more often) off-street parking facilities
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