STEP 2: Consider Potential Measures

Before devising a parking scheme, it is important to have sufficient knowledge of what tools are available. The following paragraphs provide a list of commonly utilized measures, which either address parking supply or demand. Supply typically includes parking infrastructure, building regulations and provisions for particular user groups. Demand measures typically include regulation, transport demand management, enforcement, and guidance systems.

Tools to Influence Parking Supply

Infrastructure: Infrastructure improvement measures include allocating or removing on-street areas for parking (e.g. by pedestrianization), building off-street car parks, and reorganizing public space.

In areas where urban space is limited such as the CBD or commercial areas, mechanized and multi-storey parking may be built to expand parking supply. Figure 2 shows examples of mechanized and multi-storey parking facilities.

Source: PADECO

Source: PADECO

Figure 2 Mechanized and Multi-Storey Parking


When planning for these off-street parking facilities, it is important to consider that the volume of traffic entering/exiting the parking facilities does not severely impact the traffic on the frontage road. In Japan, it is mandatory to conduct a traffic impact study when proposing development of large scale commercial buildings. If the volume of parking traffic exceeds 600 vehicles per hour, the following countermeasures should be considered:

  • Road widening and additional lane for access road;
  • Traffic management and optimization of signal phasing;
  • Modification of number, location and distribution of entry/exit points; and
  • Feeder transport services development.

Relatively small available space in the CBD area may be used for temporary off-street parking by introducing an automated system. Wheel stoppers may activate if the tariff payment expires, thereby requiring penalty fees to be paid. Such parking facilities mainly meet short term parking requirements and delivery vehicles could also use them. This type of off-street parking, however, does not accommodate long-term parking in the area.

Source: PADECO

Figure 3 Off-Street Parking Meter (UK) and Wheel Stopping Boards (Japan)


  • Building Regulations: Building regulations provide an opportunity to set limits on the number of parking spaces to be provided during the development stage. A balance has to be found. A minimum requirement for a private development may result in too many parking spaces at the premises, encouraging car use and resulting in lower demand for public parking spaces (and therefore potentially less public revenue). A maximum requirement, on the other hand, may result in more demand for public parking than there is available capacity.

Annex 2 provides recommendations for parking space provision by development type as prepared for Delhi in 2005. Annex 2 also provides cases for Hong Kong.

  • Provisions for Residential and Commercial User Groups: In an area where parking will be limited, either in duration or/and in capacity, it is advisable that provisions be made for certain interest groups, such as residents or commercial users, to be able to use parking facilities with fewer limitations. The following instruments can be used:

1) Parking Permit: Holders of a parking permit are (for a certain area) exempted from the parking limitations.

2) Season Parking Tickets: Holders of a season ticket can make use of a particular parking location (for instance a car parking), usually for a reduced fee. Season tickets can be limited in time, for instance only valid from Monday to Friday, during office hours.

3) Temporary Exemptions: A temporary exemption will give drivers the right to park without limitations in a particular location, for instance for one day or a specific time. These exemptions are useful during building activities or other special occasions.

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Tools to Influence Parking Demand and TDM

  • Marking and Signage: Most ordinary tools can control parking demand. Annex 1 provides a summary of regulations for line marking and road signs related to parking in India.
  • Regulating Parking Duration: This instrument is mainly used to limit the amount of long-stay parking in an area, which is to be used mainly for short-stay parking. Systems for paid parking to regulate parking duration are common internationally. In the long run, sophisticated systems may be introduced, such as Pay-and-Display machines, in-car devices, payment via mobile phone. The choice of a system will be influenced by different aspects, such as acceptance by the population (with probable impact on travel behavior), enforcement opportunities, effectiveness etc. The tariffs to be used, and possible variations in the tariffs (introducing different zones as well as differences between on-street and off-street parking) should be the responsibility of the Municipality. The photos below show typical methods used in the UK.

Source: PADECO

Figure 4 On-Street Paid Voucher Parking (Pay & Display) Sign and Bays


In other cities, simplified application using paper tickets has been implemented. In Singapore, drivers must buy a bundle of coupons for short-term parking, and tear off the coupon to cover the required duration. The driver must show the commencement of the time on the coupon. The bundle consists of a variety of tickets covering various durations and is sold in authorized shops and at kiosks.

  • Transport Demand Management: Transport demand or mobility management can be used to bring about a modal shift, thus reducing the incoming car traffic in favor of (mainly) public transport usage. Possible means include improvement of public transport and also development of Park N’ Ride facilities, located outside the core city area. The photo below shows a dedicated park and ride bus that provides transport from the edge of a city (Cambridge, England).

Source: PADECO

Figure 5 Park and Bus Ride Facility


Payment for parking and public transport use can be integrated by the use of IC cards. In Japan, IC cards are used to provide discount parking for rail users at certain railway stations.

  • Enforcement: An effective parking policy requires strict enforcement. Parking measures, which are introduced, but not observed will quickly lose their effect. An efficient enforcement policy should be an integral part of a municipal parking strategy. Typically, parking enforcement is carried out by traffic police, who are empowered under transport acts to penalize parking violations. However, parking schemes require higher levels of manpower to ensure that they are adequately enforced and this should be considered during design. For example, extra costs may be incurred to bring in additional enforcement.

Some cities introduce innovative approaches to inspection and enforcement. In Delhi, retired military veterans are hired as inspectors. In major cities in Japan, private contractors undertake the inspections , and the private inspectors are certified after three days training. In Cuenca, Ecuador, the municipality contracted out the inspection and enforcement work to a private company, Autoparque S.A, which undertakes painting of parking areas, facilitation of ticketing, inspection and enforcement (vehicle disabling or clamping) and collection of penalties. Under the contract, 15% of penalties are reimbursed to the municipality. Details of franchising and concession processes for on-street parking are explained in the “Parking Measures by PPP” Section of this module.

  • Parking Guidance System: A system guiding car-users efficiently to available parking locations, that may also indicate if there are any free spaces available, will prevent car-users from driving around looking for a parking space. In some cities, 10% or more of the traffic in a city center results from this kind of traffic. A similar system can be put up by the Municipality, but requires cooperation of all (or most) of the private operators of parking facilities, to be efficient. The photo below shows a typical system common in many UK towns and cities, which guides vehicles to off-street parking lots.

The Parking Guidance System above needs initial investment in infrastructure. ITS applications can distribute the information and users can receive the information via mobile phones.

Figure 6 Electronic Parking Guidance Sign

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