Annex 6 International Case Studies


This annex presents a review of strategies and methods to achieve controls in vehicle parking by international cities. Case study cities/countries are as follows:

Some lessons from international experience can be summarized as follows:

  • Utilize parking control to regulate car usage
  • Minimize the impact of on-street parking and encourage off-street parking (particularly for long-term parkers, such as commuters)
  • Optimize existing parking capacity, before creating new parking facilities.
  • Give parking priority in the following order — physically disadvantaged, residents, short-term visitors or commercial activities, long-term parkers such as work commuters
  • Improve safety for pedestrians by reducing illegal parking and opening additional public space for pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Introduce paid parking as a method to dissuade car use and/or raise revenue
  • Utilize fees and fines from parking to invest in the building of parking garages and to improve public transport
  • Public-private partnerships can be made for the operation of either on-street or (more often) off-street parking facilities.

Indian cities present a different environment to the high car ownership cities of for example Europe where parking is often used as a tool to restrain private vehicle use. Residential areas in Indian cities do not yet experience high numbers of residents competing for limited parking space close to their properties. However, the long-term potential for such a problem is significant considering the density of city population in Indian cities. Natural urban regeneration will allow new property development to incorporate pre-determined levels of private parking facility within the development either to control excessive on-street parking for residences or to limit car usage to commercial development. However, the legislation and institutional capacity to administer this will need to be in place in advance. Without such legislation, developers will maximize lucrative development without consideration of traffic impact.

Paratransit and intermediate public transport modes place greater burden on on-street parking than off-street parking lots. In the existing situation for Indian cities, particular consideration needs to be given to managing the parking of taxis, auto-rickshaws, and cycle-rickshaws. This may be required amendment of traffic regulations, attention to enforcement, and road user education.

Note: Parts of this section are based on ‘Pilot Study for Project Formation for Traffic Improvement Project in Greater Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Indonesia,’ prepared by PADECO for JBIC, 2005; and ‘Bulgaria Sofia Parking Project – Parking Strategy and Action Plan,’ prepared by PADECO for EBRD, 2004.

Next page Page top