Annex 6 International Case Studies

Paris, France

Present Situation

  • The present parking situation in Paris shows an overall saturation of available parking capacity, with the average on-street occupancy estimated at 110%, while that in the private parking facilities at 81%. Furthermore, the average occupancy in fully commercial parking garages was estimated to be about 37%, while that in car parks under concession was estimated at about 44%.
  • The use of the 88,000 places in social housing car parks is rather low, with 26% of the places unoccupied. Reasons for this can be found in terms of low security, poor state of buildings, unadjusted tariffs, or lack of discouragement against illegal on-street parking nearby.
  • There is insufficient capacity to control illegal parking.

Strategies Employed

  • Utilize parking as an instrument to regulate car-traffic.
  • Minimize the impact of parking in the public domain and encourage off-street parking.
  • Optimize the use of the existing parking capacity, before creating new parking facilities.
  • Reconsider pricing principles (differentiation in pricing).
  • Priority given to residents, permitting short-term parking for visitors, and dissuading long-term parking.

Policy and Organization

  • On-street parking policies have adopted electronic payment using a smart card and revised the zones for residential parking. Within two years, the whole area of the City of Paris will have paid parking. In the future, Paris will have its paid parking area divided into three zones, with the highest parking charges in the center and the lowest charges towards the outskirts of the city. Also, a project will be started with areas purely for residential parking.
  • Initiation of experiments with Park Nā€™ Ride systems.
  • Provisions for bicycle, motorcycle, and tourist bus parking (670 parking spaces, of which 450 are off-street), and handicapped parking (the goal is to provide one parking space for the handicapped for every 50 parking spaces).
  • The City of Paris does not have general norms denoting the number of car spaces to be included with new building developments, with the exception of residential quarters. For residential quarters, 15ā€“20% of the land area under construction must be devoted to parking spaces (or parking facilities).

Role of the Private Sector

  • Paris has 70,000 parking spaces in public carparks, which are operated under concession from the Paris Municipality. Three of the open-air carparks will be closed to improve the quality of the public domain. Many others will be renovated in the coming years. Concessions for some of these carparks will be renewed, with nine carparks undergoing re-bidding in the next two years. The new concessions will include a specific price reduction for residential parking of 30%, as well as clauses in favor of bicycle and motorcycle parking, car-sharing projects, and environmentally-friendly cars.


  • Paris will introduce depenalization of parking offenses. Essentially, this means that a parking offense (not paying or paying too little) is not considered to be a criminal offence any more, but simply as the failure to pay a local tax. The usage of handheld devices by parking attendants has improved enforcement considerably.


  • Carparks in Paris are privately operated on a concession regime by the Municipality, some of which have unique requirements and clauses.
  • Parking offenses have been decriminalized and are considered simply as a failure to pay a local tax (hopefully encouraging payment of fees).
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