Annex 6 International Case Studies


Hierarchical Parking Provision ā€“ the ABC Location Policy

To combat urban sprawl and decentralization, the Dutch government has adopted a parking policy aimed at concentrating employment-intensive land uses around public transport routes and interchanges. This is known as the ABC Location Policy and it is based on establishing and then matching accessibility definitions for locations and mobility definitions for businesses. To match mobility and accessibility, businesses with Mobility Definition A can only be located in locations with Accessibility Definition A and likewise for types B and C. (c.f. Table 4)

Table 4 Accessibility and Mobility Definitions

Accessibility Definitions Mobility Definitions
  • Main PT interchanges in town centers
  • Easy access by cycling and walking
  • Fast and frequent rail services to other centers
  • Parking for no more than 20% of the workforce
  • Supporting park Nā€™ Ride facilities on feeder routes
  • People-intensive land-uses in relation to the surface area
  • High need for public transport
  • PT interchanges in district centers
  • Bus interchanges in small towns
  • Near main trunk roads or expressway junctions
  • Parking for up to 30% of the workforce
  • Commercial services such as the clothing industry, instruments and optics, sport and recreation
  • Social services
  • All kinds of retail services
  • No specific PT requirements
  • Within the immediate vicinity of expressway junctions
  • At the edge of urban areas
  • Goods-intensive uses
  • Uses dependent on private transport

Parking spaces at offices are allocated according to employment levels, usually with a maximum of one space for every two jobs. Often the provision is much less: in Amsterdam, the parking standard for offices in the city center is zero and out from the city center is only 25 spaces per 100 jobs. Parking demand is further discouraged by the Travel Demand Management policy whereby employers encourage their staff to use the most appropriate mode of travel for journeys to work and other business trips, according to environmental criteria.

Parking Strategies

From the review of international case studies, the following list provides a summary of the strategies employed:

  • Utilize parking control to regulate car usage
  • Minimize the impact of on-street parking and encourage off-street parking (particularly for long-term parkers, such as commuters)
  • Optimize existing parking capacity, before creating new parking facilities.
  • Give parking priority in the following order ā€” physically disadvantaged, residents, short-term visitors or commercial activities, long-term parkers such as work commuters
  • Improve safety for pedestrians by reducing illegal parking and opening additional public space for pedestrians and cyclists.
  • Introduce paid parking as a method to dissuade car use and/or raise revenue
  • Utilize fees and fines from parking to invest in the building of parking garages and to improve public transport
  • Public-private partnerships can be made for the operation of either on-street or (more often) off-street parking facilities.

Lessons from International Experience

Some lessons from international experience can be summarized as follows:

  • Parking can provide a tool for limiting or controlling private car use, provided adequate enforcement is available. However, isolated measures to limit road or parking capacity to induce a shift to public transport or to restrain vehicle use can cause problems. Parking controls and vehicle restraint measures needed to be implemented as part of an integrated package of measures with the simultaneous or advance development of public transport.
  • Under supply of parking capacity is likely to cause illegal parking particularly if enforcement is not rigorous
  • Paid parking can provide a means to generate revenue for investment in other areas of the transport network
  • Parking controls can assist commercial activity by ensuring turnover of vehicles i.e. short-term parking
  • Numerous local authorities involved in parking regulation can impede the introduction and adoption of a parking strategy. If various companies/ associations are responsible for parking operation in a city, it can result in variation in systems and confusion among drivers

Applicability of International Parking Strategy to the Indian Environment

Indian cities present a different environment to the high car ownership cities of for example Europe where parking is often used as a tool to restrain private vehicle use. Residential areas in Indian cities do not yet experience high numbers of residents competing for limited parking space close to their properties. However, the long-term potential for such a problem is significant considering the density of city population in Indian cities. Natural urban regeneration will allow new property development to incorporate pre-determined levels of private parking facility within the development either to control excessive on-street parking for residences or to limit car usage to commercial development. However, the legislation and institutional capacity to administer this will need to be in place in advance. Without such legislation, developers will maximize lucrative development without consideration of traffic impact.

Paratransit and intermediate public transport modes place greater burden on on-street parking than off-street parking lots. In the existing situation for Indian cities, particular consideration needs to be given to managing the parking of taxis, auto-rickshaws, and cycle-rickshaws. This may be required amendment of traffic regulations, attention to enforcement, and road user education.

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