Annex 6 International Case Studies

Maastricht, Netherlands


  • Guaranteed accessibility to and high standards for urban environment within the city.
  • High-quality and sustainable parking facilities

Policy and Organization

  • One of the important aims of municipal parking policy is to stimulate the use of off-street parking facilities.
  • Municipal properties remain in municipal ownership. Q-Park, as private operator of the parking facilities, utilizes these properties under a 30-year lease.
  • The Municipality keeps the policy-prerogative on parking and mobility within a public-private partnership (PPP) agreement. The PPP contains agreements on profit-sharing from parking revenues.
  • Within the agreed framework, the Municipality decides the levels of parking tariffs for on-street as well as for privately operated off-street facilities.
  • The daily operation, maintenance, and enforcement of on-street parking remains with the Municipality. The private operator (Q-Park) retains control over the operation and maintenance of the off-street facilities, as well as the parking information system.
  • Both parties (the Municipality and Q-Park) invest in parking and participate in the Mobility-Fund as well as in the Mobility Platform. This platform gives advice on mobility issues to the Municipal Government.

Role of the Private Sector

  • The public-private partnership for parking is part of a more general public-private partnership on several mobility-related issues such as public transport, Park N’ Ride facilities, and bicycle parking. A mobility fund is also part of this PPP structure on mobility, from which mobility projects may be financed.
  • The public-private partnership for parking has a contract period of 30 years. The Municipality and the private operator cooperate to achieve a coherent and comprehensive parking product to maintain and enhance the high quality of the inner city of Maastricht.


  • In the Netherlands, parking attendant may carry out certain police duties, provided that they have followed a course (supported by the police), passed the exam, and have been sworn in, as so-called BOA, which is similar to an extra-ordinary investigations officer.

Lessons to be Learned

Several positive effects were produced by the public-private partnership, namely: (i) the Municipality obtained a firmer grip on parking policies (parking tariffs and selection of new locations) as well as additional information from the private operator, vital for reshaping parking policies; (ii) operating and maintenance risk is taken away from the Municipality and passed to the operator; (iii) uniform pricing policies are applicable for parking; (iv) longer-term security in terms of who is operating the facility; and (v) higher quality in parking for the general public.

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