Step 4 – Select Appropriate Measures

Following consideration of policy and design options, appropriate measures can be selected. The city authorities should determine the optimum facilities considering the profile of NMV users and the city environment. Measures should be selected that are practical and cost-effective and consider the expected user demand.

Route Choice

NMV networks and the location of NMV facilities should be planned on the basis of NMV trip origins, destinations and desire-lines. Information on actual and suppressed demand, including leisure trips, should be collected. As mentioned in Step 1, this can be obtained from surveys or from a transport model (if the city has one) of journey-to-work data, classified traffic counts, specific surveys and consultation with local NMV owners.

Route-choice criteria must be taken into account. NMV users will usually choose the quickest route for most journeys. They are reluctant to accept detours, unless there are significant compensating advantages. NMVs will avoid routes that are hilly, perceived as dangerous or have bad riding surfaces. Once the pattern of demand has been established, opportunities for traffic management or construction measures should be assessed. In practice, this will be an iterative process. It is important that physical opportunities alone do not determine which measures come forward, in isolation from knowledge about NMV users’ desire-lines. A network proposal plan should be produced, that shows speed limits, traffic calmed routes/areas, traffic management and accident remedial schemes, NMV lanes/tracks and NMV parking locations.

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Selection of NMV Lane Measures

Following identification of key NMV routes, the physical characteristics of the NMV facility should be determined. For example, the figure below (adopted for London, England) provides guidance on the type of cycle measure required for traffic conditions in terms of all vehicle flow and traffic speed. Generally, higher traffic flows and vehicle speeds require a greater degree of facility, such as traffic calming or segregated lanes.

Figure 11 Required Cycle Measures According to Vehicle Flow and Travel Speed

Traffic calming is particularly common in developed European cities. In Asian cities, ‘alley systems’ are created which provide NMV networks in narrow roads or spaces between buildings, which have less motorized traffic and can provide short cuts to longer motorized routes. Page top

Selection of Parking Facilities

The areas for implementing NMV parking facilities should be strategically considered. Typically, they should encourage both origin-to-destination trips and feeder trips for modal transfer to public transport. Therefore, facilities should be provided or encouraged close to shopping centers, employment areas, schools, leisure facilities, rail stations, and bus interchanges. Areas should also be socially attractive to encourage use and dissuade theft. Within existing parking areas for motorized vehicles, some space should be allocated for NMVs.

Space should be sought and allocated for rickshaw parking/waiting to reduce obstruction to vehicles and pedestrians on the road or sidewalk. It is advisable to make use of local knowledge, so that the allocated parking areas are close to the areas frequently used by rickshaw owners. Generally, in selecting appropriate areas for NMV parking it is important to bear in mind where there is existing parking activity. This will help to ensure that investments are successful. Provision of facilities per se can help to manage existing demand and encourage NMV usage to some extent, but not generate significant new demand.

There are a number of types of NMV parking facilities used worldwide ranging from simple stands to elaborate locking facilities and devices for bicycles. The choice of such facilities depends largely on availability of hardware from local suppliers, the level of budget for NMV facilities from the city authority, whether revenue is expected from parking, and the level of maintenance that may be necessary. Where NMV use is being encouraged as the preferred alternative to motorized modes and public affordability is low, it is recommended that relatively simple, free facilities are implemented at strategic locations throughout the city. Page top

Financial Analysis

The selection of measures should include a financial analysis, including a breakdown of all capital and recurrent costs. Benefits are likely to include savings in vehicle operating costs and travel time savings, however it is generally considered that selection and implementation of NMV measures should be policy driven, rather than based on detailed economic calculations. Next page Page top