Step 3 – Consider Potential Measures

Potential pedestrian measures should seek to give priority to pedestrians in selected areas and separate them from motor vehicles. A variety of measures that are popular worldwide is presented below.


Figure 12 Pedestrian
Demarcation and Crossing
(Tokyo, Japan)

Footpaths (pavements, sidewalks) should be provided to the extent possible to safely segregate traffic from pedestrians. This is particularly important in Indian cities which typically have accident records in pedestrian/vehicle conflicts. Even in narrow streets, delineation can be implemented to provide a visible demarcation of pedestrian space. This alerts motorists to space that is allocated for pedestrian activity. The additional provision of zebra crossings provides areas for pedestrians to cross and a form of traffic calming.

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Pedestrian Crossings and Signals

At-grade crossing facilities for pedestrians can be improved by installing pedestrian crossings and traffic signals. This will not only improve conditions and safety for pedestrians, but can also improve capacity for MVs. In addition to traffic signals (with or without dedicated pedestrian phases), other types of pedestrian crossings are defined below.

Table 7 Types of Pedestrian Crossings

Type of Crossing Description
Zebra: black and white demarcated areas in which vehicles are to give way to pedestrians
Pelican: typically uses green and red person icons to instruct pedestrians to cross or wait
Puffin: detects the presence of pedestrians and adjusts the timing for pedestrian crossing
Toucan: joint pedestrian and bicycle crossings

Note: UK terminology

Figure 13 Pedestrian Crossings with Dedicated Phase for Pedestrians (Tokyo, Japan)

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Pedestrian Bridges and Underpasses

Pedestrian overbridges and underpasses provide the safest means to cross busy roads whilst maximising the road traffic capacity. They may be provided at intervals to be decided by the city authority. Whilst the interval length will vary according to the situation, in commercial areas it is recommended that a crossing facility at least every 300m be provided and every 500m for other areas. Underpasses should have sufficient headroom and should also consider social concerns, such as lighting to ensure that they do not promote anti-social behaviour. In both cases of overbridges and underpasses, due care should be taken to ensure that the facilities are fully utilised by pedestrians and that they do not continue to cross at-grade, which undermines the capital investment and perpetuates safety concerns. Pedestrian barriers may need to be implemented.

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Pedestrian Zones

Pedestrian-only areas and zones are frequently implemented in cities of developed countries and increasingly as trials in developing countries, usually by road closure and often during particular times only, such as weekends. They may be formal pedestrian spaces or temporary market areas. When implementing pedestrian zones, consideration should be given to access for delivery vehicles to ensure that commercial activity can be maintained. This may require extensive consultation with local businesses. Access for emergency vehicles should also be considered.

Figure 14 Pedestrian Zones (Cambridge, England)

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Facilities for Disabled Pedestrians

Figure 15
Ramps for Wheelchairs Users
(Tokyo, Japan)

During the planning and development of pedestrian facilities adequate consideration should be given to accommodating disabled or less mobile users. Typically, this includes wheelchair users and the visually impaired. Such facilities can include provision of ramps, elevators, at-grade crossings without steps, tactile surfacing, audible crossings and other detectible warnings. Care should also be given to the location of street furniture so that it does not cause obstacles. Other considerations may include lighting and use of non-slip materials.

The pictures below shows yellow tactile (dimpled) surfacing that is comprehensively implemented on walkways and pavements throughout cities in Japan, both indoor and outdoor.

Figure 16 Tactile Coloured Surfacing for Visually Impaired Pedestrians (Tokyo, Japan)

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Upper Level Pedestrian Areas

Figure 17
Pedestrian Walkways
Connecting Buildings

New commercial and office buildings can incorporate space at the second floor level for integrated pedestrian walkways through the buildings, linked by external walkways and overbridges. These also help to standardise the level heights of building floors. Such vertical development helps to maximise inter-modal facilities, such as transfers from public transport or other vehicles, and maximises commercial activity. Figure shows the provision of steps, escalators, and elevators to access such pedestrian areas.

Figure 18 Access by Escalator and Elevator to 2nd Level Pedestrian Areas (Tokyo, Japan)

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Aesthetic Considerations

In order to encourage pedestrian use, areas should be designed to provide socially attractive routes. Designers should consider aspects such as landscaping, surfacing and lighting to provide routes that are attractive to pedestrians. Routes across parks are likely to have high aesthetic value.

Figure 19 Pedestrian Area with Lighting and Covered Walkway for Shelter(Tokyo, Japan)

Figure 20 Landscaping Adjacent to Pedestrian Path (Tokyo, Japan)

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