Step 4 – Select Appropriate Measures

Following consideration of policy and design alternatives, appropriate measures can be selected. The city authorities should determine the optimum facilities considering the profile of pedestrians and the city environment derived from Step 1. Measures should be selected that are practical and cost-effective and accord with the expected pedestrian demand. Some considerations for selecting measures are summarized here.

Identification of Pedestrian Priority Areas/Sections

Each city usually has areas or sections with high pedestrian activity, such as railway stations, bus terminals, markets and schools. As these generally have high demand for vehicles and parking, which often threaten pedestrian safety, it is essential to provide necessary facilities for pedestrians. The city authorities should identify such pedestrian priority areas/sections.

Location of Pedestrian Crossings

When investigating where to implement pedestrian crossings, the following factors should be taken into account:

  • Number of pedestrians crossing the road within a certain distance of the proposed facility (typically 50m either side);
  • Two-way traffic flows;
  • Accident record of the site, particularly accidents involving pedestrians;
  • Speed of vehicles;
  • Special circumstances, such as proximity of schools

In terms of quantifiable indicators, a calculation can be made to justify the crossing based on demand. For example, some countries use a PV2 calculation, in which pedestrian (P) and vehicle (V) flows are recorded for the four busiest hours to give a combined value. If this value exceeds a minimum requirement, the crossing is justified. This formula also allows potential sites throughout a city to be ranked in terms of priority, though other aspects such as accident rates should also be taken into account.

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Financial Analysis

The selection of measures should include financial analysis including a breakdown of all capital and recurrent costs. Benefits are difficult to quantify and it is generally considered that selection and implementation of pedestrian measures should be policy driven rather than based on detailed economic calculations.

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